Well kinda. You are right for an actual insurance policy, but if you eject from a personally insured ship and I board it and it then gets destroyed, I will get the basic (free) insurance payout. I’m not really sure what happens in the case of the OP and a transport ship drops, but I think the ship owner likely charges to the Bowhead pilot upon ejection from the exploding ship. In that case, you are right that the Bowhead pilot won’t collect on the original policy, will get a free basic policy of their own to collect on.
If the owner stays the same however then I would imagine they collect the full, original insurance policy. Someone would need to test or confirm.