Welcome to New Eden @oumpaa_Podiene.
As other have pointed out ships tend to specialise for particular roles - it doesn’t mean that you can’t do a range of things with them, but it won’t be as effective as a more appropriate hull. You wouldn’t use a Ferrari for hauling haybales on a farm. It’ll do it, but using a tractor is more effective.
If you pull up the information window on the ship then under traits you’ll see the bonuses that the hull grants and a bit of information about how it is usually fitted.
The Corvette will do most roles but isn’t terribly good at them - it’s very much the ship of last resort, but has a crucial advantage that in a tight corner, it’s free!
You are a Gallente clone, I’ll describe Gallente ships - I normally fly Amarrian ships, but I’m more than capable of looking down with disdain at the rest of 'em.
So we’ll start with the obvious non-Gallente ship which you’ve already found: The Venture. A good small mining ship - bonuses for mining and an ore hold. Normally shield fitted so you can put mining upgrades in the low slots to improve mining rate. Use it for mining. Yes, it can carry two drones and weapon turrets. You could do Level 1 missions in it, but it isn’t going to be as fast or effective as a combat ship.
Level 1 missions are the realm of combat frigates and destroyers. You’ll want a Cruiser for Level 2 missions (with medium weapons). The obvious ones are the Incursus - a very effective turret frigate using Hybrids or the Tristan which relies on drones. The Tristan does really benefit from being able to fly five drones (Drones skill at V). The other Gallente frigates are a little more specialised - the Imicus for exploration is an example. Each race has a range of combat ships and specialists, Explorers, Logistics, Hauling, Electronic Warfare and so forth. T2 ships are more skill demanding more specialised ships than the basic T1 ships (T1 are the basic lower skill ships - this is Eve, it’s all jargon!)
A Eve University have good reference for Gallente Ships.
The initial career agents will teach you a good mix of the mechanics and give you a set of basic ships - a mission runner, a miner, a hauler as well as a bit of ISK.
Eve is deeply complex - multiple ships each with their own niche, multiple weapon types, each with a range of ammunition and each good for different purposes. Add in the demands of balancing shields, speed, armour, capacitor consumption and a thousand and one different parameters then you will feel lost but always learning.
And that’s not started on the whole economy and industry side of Eve. And the diplomacy, corporate management, so forth that comes with one of the most completely realised sandboxes I’ve found.
So, welcome to New Eden. Good luck in your adventures and Fly as Safely as you wish!