Yeah. They are too safe, and there are too many of them to support anything close to profit. The one exception being something with a Market Module, but you will have to be able to defend that from your competitors who won’t want you muscling in on their turf.
Maybe once (if?) compression becomes taxable, there will be some space for local profitable compression/refining structures, but even then I would only expect you to be able to cover the fuel costs with some small profit in a busy system (and not ever the sunk cost of the structure except perhaps on very long time-scales). Taxes from moon mining require force to extract from your customers, and if they ever come to highsec even that won’t be possible, and Engineering Complexes suffer from the index problem meaning serious builders prefer to spread out and not use public structures. Plus the tax structures of the Engineering Complexes are, as far as I know, still broken as they are based on those industry indexes. Last time I used one I was paying like 150 ISK (yes, just 150) to install a job in a quiet system meaning there is no hope of that owner ever making a profit.
I don’t think public Upwell structures will ever be profitable without a serious nerf to NPC stations. That said, if you have the resources, and more imagination than I, you might find the right place and services to turn a profit, especially if you build a rapport with your customers and maybe a recognized brand. Just remember though that a public profile might bring some attention (and shortly after, wardecs) your way so factor in defending your stuff as part of your business plan.