It says I have a short time to leave or they will attack me. Does this mean other players can attack me in the meantime, and prevent me from warping, or am I safe to warp through these places?
Don’t loiter and don’t fly anything too fragile and you should be fine.
I’ve not flown through space owned by a group I have really bad standing with - I try not to get into that position.
From what I gather the Navy response is slower than CONCORD response.
I would expect that just passing through, gate to gate, is probably fine.
The NPC standing changes nothing in regards to player engagement rules. But faction NPCs will hunt, scram and kill you if you hang out too long in their space. <10s. Unfortunately anything else than fast travel through wouldn’t be possible in Caldari highsec space.
My worry was not the npcs, it was always the players.
Assuming your sec status is okay and you don’t go suspect or criminal, unless you are enlisted in the opposing faction warfare militia only the faction NPCs of the local empire will hunt you… aside of potential attacks by suicide gankers of course.
regardless of your npc faction standings and if you are in a space where you have bad standings with certain empires, players CAN AND WILL attack… anywhere…
@Uriel_the_Flame is correct about players being able to attack you in high sec without Concord intervention.
Of course, all a suicide ganker would need is a corvette with a point. By the time concord pops him, the navy will have arrived to take over.