This is a perfect reasonable request…unfortunately, there is no, single reasonable answer. It’s just far, far too complex of a discussion for there to be a single summary of all of this-people literally spend years getting all of this down, and no two pilots or situations are quite alike…
But! Let me try to suggest some things that can help.
Here’s a presentation from E-Uni that can serve as an introduction to fitting your ship:
And the course material that goes along with it:
Now, this barely gets into any detail on modules, but covers the mechanics and some considerations of fitting a ship.
To expand on that, I would highly recommend your next stop being the installation of PYFA, which is a fitting tool that you can experiment with. This lets you see and compare all ships and modules, but most importantly, you can see how these things work with your skills:
That link will get you to the software and give you an introduction to using it. A really good way to experiment with this and learn about fitting is to:
- Identify a ship you want to fly or are flying
- Google for fits
- Load them into PYFA and see how it works with your skills, reading notes on the fits if available (to get insight into why they were fit the way they were)
- Compare and try different modules in the tool and see what happens to the stats
The cool thing about PYFA is that all of the modules are listed and categorized so you can explore what’s available, what they do, and what different options are.
The next step I’d suggest would be to Google PVP and the ship that you are flying. You want to see both kills and victims so you know what can be successful and what can die, as well as tactics for using and taking on that ship. Take that with a big grain of salt, because every fit has a counter. But, this will give you some insight into how some of the PVP strategies and fitting concepts will work for you. For example, here’s a vid of a Stratios popping a Gnosis (using scrams, webs, and neuts to catch it and drones to kill it):
And another example of a Gnosis winning a fight:
Don’t take those as gospel, but as examples and data points.
Fitting is both an art and science, and is highly dependent on your skills, strategy, environment, what you are doing, the phase of the moon, and whether you remembered to sacrifice that chicken last night
If you want to dig deeper into specific modules, E-Uni has tons of articles on specific kinds of modules that you might find helpful as well.
I know that’s not quite the answer you were hoping for, but the beauty of EVE is that it is so deep and complex, and unfortunately, that gets right to the heart of your question.
Hope that helps, and good luck!