I asked myself recently the same question as a newbro and here at what i gathered :
Null sec alliance pvp :
If you like huge deployments with hundreds of other players, capital ships and so on : go to a null sec alliance. Corps like Karmafleet, Brave Newbies are opened to newbies ( in fact they are school and recruitments centers) and have funding programs to give you ships and skillbooks.
As already said by others, you will a be a grunt, and low skilled too boot, inside a huge army. So you will mainly follow orders. But at the same time if you enjoy flying specialized ships inside a bigger whole, you will find your happiness there ( even low skilled roles like tacking or e-war are very important).
If you like cloak and dagger, hunting without being seen on local, raiding from a wormhole which your prey didn’t know it led to your lair, try wormhole alliances.
Sovereignity works more or less as null-sec ( the « blue donut » effect) but ships tend to be smaller since wormholes disappear after too much mass or just don’t allow bigger ships.
« To crush high sec dwellers, to see them tremble in fear before you, and to hear the lamentations in the local channel ».
Ganking is fighting ( and killing) other players in high sec, mostly suicide missions when the ship you loose to concord is worth less than your victim’s one. To sum up you spend your time sitting in a gate killing defenseless people but for them it’s a science to reach your goals before concord arrives, so speadsheets and strategy are still involved.
Ganking also work in low sec but in this case you are just killing defenceless people without even concord factor to take into account : you just have a gun and they don’t.
Faction Warfare :
Once you enlist, for minmatar freedom for instance, you are in a constant war with all the players enlisted in the opposing factions, anmar slavers and caldari oligarchs in this case. And concord doesn’t intervene in this conflict so you can shot in high sec too. Permanent war to sum up.
FW resolves around small deadspace areas called plexes where opposite sides fight for the control. Each plex being conquered in a matter of minutes. No need to say those spaces are basically pvp arenas.
Be aware that you will loose access to half the empire territories. And you won’t be safe in high sec. Therefore an alt hauler or mission runner will be mandatory if you want to continue those activities.
FW is therefore mainly solo pvp and small gang pvp. Think of it as the dirty dozen pvp. The corp I am in is currently recruiting and is newbro friendly ( our alliance Ushra’Khan is one of the oldest of eve).
In low sec, and certain spaces of null, exist individual pirates and alliances. Most of the time, it’s mainly small gang and solo pvp. Like FW but without the background and mechanisms, actually a lot of « pirates » hang in FW space looking for fights : they just shoot both sides.
There are also a special type of pvp against blue donuts spaces. Even if those big null sec alliances are basically superpowers, you can still poke them in their soft bellies hunting their industrial and mining backbone in their own space.
It’s basically asymmetrical warfare since you are running in small gang in enemy space avoiding their huge retaliation fleet. Pirates do it but also other null sec or low sec alliances : it’s a strategy.
Two special cases :
Red vs Blue : a same alliance with inside two sides in a permanent war. Therefore very pvp oriented with fun and cheap ships’ battles. Looks like a great place to learn pvp.
Eve University : as its name suggests, this alliance gave itself as a goal to be the univiersity of this universe. Very newbro friendly and they have pvp as part of their cursus.
o/ & fly reckless