OK. The OP has an issue, and having done long training runs for specialist skills I can sympathise. However, there’s not really a significant problem here - except that he’s a new player and doesn’t appreciate the range Meta weapons and modules he could use to equal effect.
Eve is deep. There’s a lot of detail.
But based on his above he knows that.
Let’s compare two small energy turrets. It’s what I know well, but applies in general across the board.
The Small Focused Modulated Pulse Energy Beam I and the Small Focused Pulse Laser II have the same statistics. Damage multiplier x3.6, rate of fire, range, tracking all the same. The only difference is the T2 can use advanced ammunition, uses about 25% more capacitor and has harder fitting demands.
There’s a slight increase in damage for the Small Pulse Turret specialist skill, but at most it’s half the difference between basic and Navy ammunition and never makes up for the difference in capacitor consumption (an energy turret is a device for converting capacitor into damage).
The only other difference is that the T2 weapon takes a long training time where as the Meta 4 turret (T2 is Meta 5) only needs the basic skill.
And Meta 4 turrets are cheaper.
And lot easier to fit in a hull.
Training Rapid Firing, Surgical Strike, Motion Prediction and the other basic Turrets skills will have more effective than training up for T2 turrets. Only bother with T2 kit for specialising - it’s not a “magic win gun”. You win by learning how and what to fight, and (more importantly) when you shouldn’t fight.
By the way, the advanced ammunition is a blessing and a curse - better damage, poorer application (or vice versa). If you don’t understand turret damage application then you are better avoiding them - Conflagration may look like a high damage crystal, but against small targets - the same size as you - it’s hard pressed to track and cleanly hit for all that damage.
So, I understand your frustrations - I’m a years old pilot and currently training for Minmatar HACs (no comments) so know that things take time. Learn the basics first, get skills to Level IV, work out what you like before specialising. Omega gives you a faster training rate than Alpha. Use it to try different ships and weapon systems.
Fit T2 modules and turrets where the intent of the ship points that way, Meta items for the supporting modules.
I know pilots that get good kills in ships designed for Alpha Clones - fittings from before they had T2 turrets. It’s not the skills, it’s the experience (and as good as the Eve University site is, it doesn’t teach experience).
Don’t fixate on “bigger = win” Eve isn’t balanced that way. Its more Rock, Paper, Scissors, Pencil, Elastic Band, Wombat, Sausages. With a certain amount of hope and prayer.
I’m still learning how this rabbit hole / game works - and that’s not a skill thing. Life, and New Eden is complex.
@Whiskiz_IronScrotum (god’s grace - did you stand at the back when they gave out names!?) feel free to reach out to me in game, get some time out in space flying ships you can fly rather than dreaming of a distant future.