The answer to the question asked is going to be the relevant weapon skills (Small Energy Turret), Surgical Strike) and the weapon specialisation skills.
Add into that Rapid Firing to reduce the cycle time and between them they can add better than 50% to the raw DPS.
But as others have said, that’s not the whole story. Tracking is about how well the weapon follow a fast moving target.
There are skills that improve tracking: Motion Prediction is the obvious one.
Some hulls have bonuses to turret damage and tracking based on the relevant ship skills.
The other thing is “how you fly”.
Imagine you have a gun and are trying to hit a bird flying around your head. It is hard to hit it if it’s circling quickly - swinging the gun around, trying to get the right lead distance. You’ll not get many good hits.
But if the bird obligingly sits still, it flies directly at you then you’ll get a nice easy shot.
Also if you are trying to run around the bird at the same time it is flying around you… Well good luck mate.
This “left or right movement” that makes life hard is called Traversal.
Same in Eve - the ship you are firing is the bird.
“Keep at Distance” tells your ship to stay a fixed distance away and minimise traversal. Orbit is “fixed distance, maximum traversal to the target”.
(Do “lots of have waving and imagine the fight and how much you and your target have to turn guns to get good hits” - tracking is an angular rate thing: degrees per second. The tracking number in game is an aggregated figure since there’s other things in the “can I hit” equation - big ships are easier to hit than small).
This is made more complex by different turret types having different tracking performance. Normally long range weapons, which as beam lasers, track badly. Short range weapons track a target better (they have to - they are going to deal with closer targets).
Amarr has it reasonably off - pulse weapons track poorly compared to other races turrets. Beam lasers track better.
A beam fitted Coercer will struggle with a close in frigate. You need to kill things before they get close, or use keep at range, or fit a tracking computer with tracking script, or a tracking rig.
I suggested pulse lasers on the Maller for this reason. You will be facing frigates in missions and medium beams with a low skill / experience pilot will struggle.
The railgun Moa (the Caldari gun cruiser) I have is a pain because of that.
I’ve repeated a lot of what people have said above - but tracking and flying to exploit it or compensate for it, is important to know about.