Time to kill.
A critical part of all games that involve PvP.
The short version is that there is an ideal time to kill for players which doesn’t feel like an epic bullet sponge, while making the target who dies feel able to respond to the situation and take some actions to fight back.
Because EVE doesn’t have limited player numbers, it has very very bad ttk systems, most things are either bullet sponges or dead before they know it.
Damage caps are one mechanic by which you can make ttk controllable as fleet size scales.
And also act as a break on N+1 mechanics while not removing the advantage of having more people entirely, you just have to actually control the larger number effectively and split fire appropriately.
As for any ‘why would you split fire in RL’ arguments, 1. You do actually, it’s called supression. 2. RL has LOS/LOE/LOF mechanics. 3. You can make a new lore argument for it, given we already have existing things with damage caps (for exactly that TTK reason), it’s in universe and could just be adapted to ships.
Does this mean it ‘has’ to happen, no of course not. There are other solutions, but burying our head in the sand and pretending that the current alpha blob mechanics are great is silly.